Albright, L.K. (2002). Bringing the ice maiden to
adolescents in learning through picture book read-alouds in
In Journal of
& adult literacy,
45 (5), 418-428.
In this article, Albright
focuses on supplementing content-area reading with read-aloud
picture books. The goal was to present a framework for using read-alouds
this narrative study, Albright discusses several benefits to
reading informational books aloud. These include: factual
knowledge gained, promotes social growth, exposes students to the
expository text structure, creates a yearning for more information
and hopefully leads to independent reading of non-fiction material
article concluded by identifying a method for implementing read-alouds
in content areas. Three stages, Planning, Preparing and Producing
were explained. Examples of classroom discussions were included.
Read-aloud picture books were described as enhancing
student learning by engaging students and creating a desire to
seek more information about specific topics.
students engage in reading history trade books rather than
textbooks, they connect on an aesthetic level, which helps them
remember the historical facts they read.
This leads to a deeper understanding of the content
material. Reading picture books can increase the level of student
understanding of curriculum standards.
many educators believe picture books are only appropriate for
young children, Albright's work with middle school students
illustrates how they can be successfully used with older children.
R.L. (2002). You can"t learn much from books you can't
policymakers have put the emphasis for reading instruction at the
elementary level. As
a result, many middle and high school students are faced with
using texts they cannot read, and also have no opportunity for
this narrative study, two recommendations were made by the author
to help students who face difficulties with textbooks. One is to
choose books with a lower reading level, or provide supplementary
materials. The second
is to research exemplary practices teachers have used to help
children become successful, despite using difficult texts.
concludes by stating at the middle school level, single source
curriculum is common. The assumption being all students will be
able to learn from textbooks.
Since most textbooks are written for reading levels at
least one year above the students who are expected to use the
books, many students continue to struggle.
is an expectation that textbooks are to be used in today's
classrooms. Teachers need to find appropriate materials to
supplement the curriculum for those students who have difficulty
reading the standard textbooks. There are also strategies for
reading textbooks that should be incorporated into content area
classes to enable struggling readers to be successful.
T.W. (2000). Reading in the content areas: Social
study reviewed teacher beliefs and practices in regard to teaching
reading. It focused
on pre-service teachers and the problems they encounter when they
faced with the realities of classroom placements. The conflicts
arose between their beliefs and those of their cooperating teachers.
qualitative case study of high school teachers was presented. This
study used observational field notes, interviews and
autobiographies to identify the interaction between the teacher's beliefs and the school and community expectations.
Surveys were used to study students' attitudes towards
different types of reading. The
material students were presented with in content area classrooms
is also discussed.
believed that recent studies have expanded views of content area
reading in classrooms. These
studies are seen as based in the social constructivist theory.
It was noted that more research in content literacy,
focusing on teacher and student interaction, should be undertaken.
study highlights the social constructivist theories. The focus of
reading should be on the interaction of students and teachers with
text. If textbooks
are to be used in classrooms, teachers need to have the pedagogy
to use them appropriately with students.
L.W. ( 2002). Aren't these books for little kids? Educational Leadership, 60
this narrative study, Billman relates work with secondary teachers
in incorporating picture books into social studies classes.
relates that many teachers are skeptical about using picture books
in the upper grades. She
presents information stating the benefit to students when
literature is used in conjunction with textbooks.
Criteria are set for choosing texts and a list of suggested
topics offered. Following the format designed by Billman, teachers
reported positive experiences when using of picture books in
secondary social studies classes.
Benefits to students with limited English, or learning
disabilities are noted.
presented in many of the books, are not appropriate for elementary
students, however, they work well introducing units of study with
K. (1998). Linking social studies and literacy development through children'sbooks. Social studies & the 10 (4), 23-25.
through children'sbooks. Social studies & theyoung learner,
10 (4), 23-25.
In this narrative
study, Button discusses the use of children's literature to
teach content material and develop literacy skills.
reports on a study completed by two teachers and a literacy
coordinator working with two classes of second graders. Prior to
beginning a unit on immigration and railroad building, books on
the topics were placed around the classroom for children to
look through and write information on a K-W-L chart.
Many of the books were then used as read-alouds and for
children to use when completing the culminating activity.
result, reported by the teachers, was students used more
information from the read-aloud books in their final project, than
they did from their textbooks.
The knowledge gained became the basis for their writing.
article concluded by stating that quality children's literature
can serve, not only as a foundation for a social studies
curriculum, but can also enhance literacy development.
findings demonstrate the close tie between social studies and
positive relationship leads to student learning in the content
area and improvement in reading and writing skills.
D'Arcangelo M. (2002). The challenge of
content-area reading: A
this article, D'Arcangelo presents information based discussion
The focus of the interview is on implementing a secondary
reading program. It
reports on the difficulty many secondary students face in reading
textbooks and highlights the skills and strategies necessary for
teaching reading in the upper grades.
textbooks to gain content-area knowledge is not successful for
many students. One of the major findings noted is the lack of
training for secondary teachers in reading strategies.
reading in the content area must go beyond the textbook, and
include literature of all genres.
H. (2002). Expository texts in literature circles. Voices from the middle, 9 (4), 7-14.
narrative study is a discussion of using literature circles as a
vehicle for incorporating expository text in classrooms.
expository texts have not been used for literature circles.
However, research has identified
expository text as making up seventy to eighty percent of
standardized reading tests, as well as textbooks.
Teachers developed strategies for using nonfiction in
literature circles and used them with their students.
results report students gained a greater understanding of content
material when it is presented in literature circles using
circles that use social studies content as a basis for discussion enhanced content area learning.
J. (1995). Talk and picture books in intermediate classrooms.Primary
voices, 3 (1), 8-15.
Dickinson's article is a narrative study on how she incorporated
picture books into her classroom.
books, when read aloud, encourage students to want to explore the
topic. She cautions that books need to be carefully chosen. Books
used should be meaningful to the students, one with which they can
have a personal connection. These
books will serve as the basis for classroom discussions. The
author designed guidelines for her literature groups.
She notes the growth of the children's responses over
time. Students were able to make personal connections to the
stories through their group discussions and writing.
concludes that picture books can be a powerful resource when used
as part of a social studies curriculum.
N.K. (2000). 3.6 minutes per day: The scarcity of informational
texts in first grade. Reading
research quarterly. 35 (2), 202-224.
study focused on the limited amount of informational texts
available to primary level students.
conducted research in twenty first-grade classrooms in two
different socioeconomic settings near Boston, Massachusetts.
During one academic school year, the classrooms were each visited
four full days by the researcher.
Data were collected regarding the types of texts found in 3
identified areas: on classroom walls and other surfaces, in the
classroom library and in classroom language activities.
result revealed informational texts were scare in classroom
libraries had few information texts and little written information
was posted on classroom walls or other surfaces, for students to
interact with during the day.
This lack of material was more acute in the classrooms
found in the lower socioeconomic school district.
text should be introduced in primary grades.
Students need to be exposed to all genres, in order to
develop the necessary literacy skills for using all types of text.
Fordham, N.W., Wellman, D. & Sandmann, A. (2002) Engaging and supporting students in social studies
readings. The social studies, 93 (4),149-158.
In this narrative study, the authors present their belief
that social studies textbooks should not be the primary focus of
social studies lessons. The
purpose of is study was to discuss successful strategies teachers
can use in their classrooms.
Linking reading and writing through social studies is a
natural connection. Strategies presented in the article describe
scaffolding techniques to support both reading and writing.
Teachers who used these strategies, report that students become
more engaged in the lesson and demonstrate increased comprehension
literacy development, as well as, content area learning
demonstrates the connection between reading strategies and
learning in the content area.
L., Ash, G.E. & Cullinan, B.E. (2000). Children's literature. In M.L. Kamil,P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson & Lawrence
M.L. Kamil,P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson &R. Barr (Eds.),
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
literature-based curriculum movement began in the late 1980s and
1990s. Early studies were quantitative. For example, content
markers, (gender or ethnic groups) were identified and simple
counts of the number of times the item, or marker, being
studies was noted in the text.
Recent reviews were more qualitative in nature.
They reviewed cultural issues presented in texts and also
identified the time period during which the material was written.
This was done to give an understanding of the historical
narrative study begins with a description of the multidisciplinary
nature of children's literature. It presents an organizing
principle for the research in the field and identifies three major
areas for focus. These areas were: texts, readers and context,
which were identified as interdependent factors.
study reports that supports for children are necessary for them to
fully benefit from the literature.
Without some structures put in place by teachers, students
will not develop any new skills for reading and understanding
the use of children's literature first involves determining what
is read, how it is read and if it is discussed following the
reading. Adding literature to the curriculum, without structures
in place for using it, will not result in the learning of content
material or the development of literacy skills.
M. (2002). Living on the edge: Confronting social injustices.
In this article,
George reports on his professional development work with middle
school teachers who wanted to integrate literature and expository
text into their social studies and language arts curriculum.
used expository text and fiction to develop units on a variety of
social studies topics. Students
used the knowledge gained to develop inquiry-based projects.
results reported by teachers show that the mix of expository and
fictional texts led to a high level of enthusiasm among students.
This was especially true when the topics were about social
literature as a springboard for conversation can enhance social
studies programs. It
allows textbooks to be used as a resource, while fiction helps
students connect on an aesthetic level.
George, M.A.& Stix, A (2000). Using multilevel
young adult literature in middle
school american studies. The
social studies, 91 (1), 25-31.
this narrative study, the authors worked with seventh and eighth
grade teachers incorporating literature into content area classes.
part of their American history classes, teachers incorporated
multilevel fiction into their lessons.
Staff developers worked with teachers to develop
appropriate activities to use with the books.
reported the result was an increase in student motivation due to
the self-selection of reading material.
Classes were more interactive and engaging to students.
choice in the literature read is important.
Offering students a variety of books on the same topic, but
a various reading levels, ensures that all students will be given
the same opportunity to learn.
S. (2002). Nonfiction inquires: Using real reading and writing to
the world. Language arts, 80 (1),12-22.
study was designed in response to the author's observation of
the lack of nonfiction reading, writing and research done in
team of teachers and the author formed a nonfiction study group.
The purpose of the group was to develop strategies for
incorporating non-fiction in both reading and writing assignments.
Materials in classroom libraries were reviewed and researchers
discover that over sixty percent of the books were fiction.
In addition, the nonfiction books are mostly reference
books and textbooks. Since ninety percent of adult reading is
nonfiction, the teachers feel there is a lack of connection
between the classroom and the real world.
result of this study is the development of criteria for choosing
nonfiction in the classroom. It stresses real-world inquiry as important in fostering
thinking skills in students.
Exposing students to various forms of non-fiction was
viewed as necessary in helping students make connections in their
nonfiction, when included in social studies lessons, can help
students gain greater understanding of content material.
S.E. (1996). Using literature to teach geography in high schools. studies/social
narrative study investigates the interrelationship between
in the study design guidelines for choosing appropriate
develop units incorporating the literature into geography lessons.
three major results are presented from using a literature-based
approach to teaching geography are as follows: a natural
connection between geography and literature, geography
comprehension increases when the study of literature is included
in geography course, and reading comprehension improves, when a
literature-based approach is used in geography.
literature into high school social studies classes, not only
increases content knowledge, but also improves reading skills.
D. (2002). Webwatch: Picture book read-alouds. Retrieved March 1,
2003 from Reading online 5 (9).
The purpose of this
report is to provide teachers with Internet
reports research shows the importance of reading aloud to young
aloud stories on social studies content to
not only nurtures an understanding of the content, but reinforces
language arts skills.
explains the importance of visual literacy and the role it plays
in classrooms. A
guideline for choosing appropriate books is given, along with
information on using poetry.
need to be given support in order to be able to make connections
to what they have read. The
article concludes with specific information on a variety of
resources to consider, when incorporating children's literature
social studies and language arts curricular, can enhance content
knowledge, while expanding language art skills.
M.J. & Janisch,C. (1998).
Connecting literacy with social
studies & the young learner,
studies content.Social studies & the young learner,10 (4), 6-9.
This article reports
on a project by three elementary teachers. They designed a curriculum to link literacy and content
first step was for teachers to select social studies topics to
focus on that would be of interest to students.
The topics are used as the basis for social studies
lessons, along with reading and language arts activities. A
criterion set was the availability of appropriate reading
use multiple texts to meet the different reading levels of all
students in the classroom. Students
are prepared to read by scaffolding activities. Writing activities
are also incorporated, to help students learn to organize and
communicate knowledge learned.
report that students improved their reading and writing skills
through the study of social studies themes.
M.C. (1997). Picture books: A social studies resource in the elementary
classroom. Retrieved March 1, 2003 from
elementary classroom. Retrieved March 1, 2003 fromERIC clearinghouse for social studies/social science education.
books provide powerful images, which can help students understand
historical events. The
images in these books can be used not only to illustrate the
historical event, but also to assist students identifying artist's bias or point of view.
narrative study focuses on the visual aspects of the books.
Pictures by artists and photographers, along with storyboards and
illustrated timelines, combine to visually enhance text and make
the content more meaningful. This is important when multicultural
material is being presented.
the text of picture books is read, the visual images shared
promote a deeper understanding of the story presented.
Incorporating children's literature into the curriculum can only
enrich social studies lessons.
B., Leone, S. & Dipillo, M.L. (1997). Exploring the literature
Linking reading and writing through
fact: Linking reading and writing throughinformation trade
is important that children learn how to use expository text.
The focus of this article is to present material to
teachers about methods to connect reading and writing to
informational trade books. The
goal is to increase student ability to read and understand
material presented in expository texts.
narrative study identifies two factors as reasons why students
have difficulty. The
first is their limited of exposure to expository writing because
of the lack of material written for young children, and second the
limited classroom use of this genre by teachers.
reading and writing opportunities in classrooms is valuable.
Children need to be taught the skills necessary to be
successful when using informational texts.
This article relates valuable information for teachers in
selecting material and gives them strategies for using the texts.
It is important that students need to be given the tools to
use the materials, not just exposed to it.
expository texts as part of regular classroom instruction gives
students opportunities to learn inquiry skills. Informational
trade books should be included in classroom instruction to better
prepare students for the future.
instruction. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson & R. Barr (Ed.), Handbook of reading research vol III (pp.563-586). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
narrative study reviews the historical roots of the
active-construction model. Research
in literature- based instruction in classroom settings is
features of literature-based instruction, trade books,
knowledgeable teachers, social interactions with books and student
choices are part of the study. A discussion of the importance of
storybook reading with young children, as well as,
literature-based instruction in classroom settings is included.
study concludes by stating that future research, focusing on the
value of literature-based instruction, should be done using both
qualitative and quantitative methods.
literature with content-area lessons is supported by the
L. R. & Nelson, T.A. (1999). Learning history through
literature. ERIC document reproduction service, number: ED435586.
study has three purposes: discussion of the renewed interest in
using children's literature to teach history, identifying
research-based guidelines for teachers, and presenting pedagogy
for using children's literature to teach history.
students were observed and researchers report that when given a
choice, students choose to read historical fiction or non-fiction
rather than traditional textbooks.
Teacher direction is important for students to understand
the information within a contextual framework.
student-centered learning experience is described, including the
result is demonstrated in their final project, which shows
students learn how to use historical fiction to enhance their
study of history.
article presents research in literature-based instruction to
social studies curriculum. Pedagogy of exemplary practices for
using literature in content area classes, should become part of
professional development for teachers in the content area.
Owens, W.T. & Nowell, L.S. (2001). More than just pictures:
this narrative study, the author's report time devoted to
teaching social studies in classrooms today is declining.
Standardized tests have placed a major focus on literacy
article presents information about educators who have incorporated
picture books, based on social studies content, into their English
language arts curriculum. They
used time designated as a literacy block for reading literature
that presents social studies themes.
list of recommend literature is included, along with strategies
for using the texts with students.
J.M. (1997). Another look at literature-based instruction. Education,
118 (1), 67-75.
118 (1), 67-75.
narrative study reports on the value of literature-based
author presents literature-based instruction as a holistic
approach to incorporate authentic literature in classrooms. It exposes students to rich, quality literature.
article concludes with three characteristics of effective
programs: many opportunities for children to read, self-selecting
of material by students and social interaction around the material
study reports that giving students many opportunities to read and
exposing them to quality materials, along with choice, engages
them in the content being studied, and serves to improve literacy
A. H. & Paris, S.G. (2003).
This article reports
on three studies, which explain the development and validation of
the Narrative Comprehension of Picture Books Task.
This is an assessment using wordless picture books with
young children to test children's comprehension skills.
three studies follow 158 K-2 students in narrative comprehension
and the student's performance on a task.
all three versions of the test, a developmental trend by reading
ability and grade was discovered.
The NC task is seen as a valid quantitative measure of
comprehension is important to beginning readers and can be used in
classrooms for instruction and assessment.
R. (2000). Literature as invitation. Voices from the middle,
(2), 8- 15.
8 (2), 8- 15.
literature as an invitation into conversation is the major focus
of this article. Probst
describes how in a literature-based classroom, literature can lead
to powerful discussions among students.
He identifies several activities in which teachers can use
literature to engage students.
narrative study describes strategies for using literature as a way
to enhance student writing. Sharing
literature, then asking students to write silently before a class
discussion, gives all students time to process the literature and
allows all students to have a voice in the discussion.
reported that using literature can enhance students' knowledge
and help them make connections to their own lives.
It may be a connection to their lives, or to the world as a
whole, which enhances their understanding of the content material
article presents strategies used by teachers for incorporating
literature in content area lessons. The literature is seen as
helping to increase students' content knowledge.
(2002). Multiple texts: Multiple opportunities for teaching and
this narrative study, Robb discusses a process for using multiple
texts with students in the same class.
She describes the process she used integrating her language
arts class with a colleagues history class.
uses multiple texts of different reading levels to give students
choice in what to read, and also to be able to accommodate the
variety of reading levels typically found in middle school
allows students to be part of the same reading community. Students
are able to discuss the topic under study, in spite of reading a
variety of books.
result of using multiple texts allows individualization of the
material, with each student being able to study the content area
topic using texts appropriate for their reading level.
It must be remembered that students with wide variety of reading levels are typically found in the same classroom. By using a multiple texts on the same content topic every student can learn the same material using texts, which are appropriate for their own reading level.
Springs, MD: National council for the social studies.
purpose of this narrative study is to present background
information on reading comprehension and ways to incorporate
reading strategies into social studies classrooms.
study states three factors concerning student learning that leads
to enhanced reading comprehension; students are prepared to read,
students understand how the material is organized and the students reflect on the material read.
are outlined and resources given for implementing reading
strategies in content area classes. Many times teachers, who have
been trained in content areas, do not have the necessary
background to use textbooks and literature appropriately in
classroom situations. By
giving teachers strategies to use, students will be able to learn
content material and increase literacy skills.
article presents the natural link between social studies and
focuses on reading strategies and the need for content area
teachers to be trained in those strategies.
F. (2003). Informing our practice: Modernist, transactional, instruction.
instruction.Retrieved February 1, 2003.
this narrative study three theoretical perspectives on reading:
modernist, transactional and critical are defined.
study discusses the current political climate, which has school
districts focusing on test scores, which is seen as causing a
decline in the use of children's literature. There has been an
increase in the use of commercial programs, which focus on raising
test scores on high-stake standardized tests.
There has been a movement to using a combination approach,
basal programs and authentic children's literature.
theoretical shift is necessary for teachers who are using
literature along with basal programs.
Incorporating literature, without a change in practice,
will not result in any changes in student learning. The
environment in which the student is reading has an impact on the
level of understanding of the text.
Instructional practices must reflect the social, political
and cultural aspects of reading.
adding literature into social studies classes, without giving
teachers the strategies to use the books efficiently, will not
lead to the increased knowledge in content areas.
L.B. & Donovan, C.A. (2001). The contents of
Smolkin, L.B. & Donovan, C.A. (2001). The contents of comprehension:The information book read aloud, comprehension acquisition, and
article presents a case study of a first grade teacher's work
using informational book read- alouds to research student
comprehension and language acquisition.
were collected from two first grade classes over a two year
period. The teacher presents six storybooks and six information
books to students and reader response was coded into seventeen
report that the use of informational text in young children
affects three areas: conceptual development, comprehension
strategy formation and text structure familiarity.
use of informational texts is appropriate in the early grades.
Exposing students to all forms of text increases their
comprehension skills, when teachers use informational texts as
S.E. & Moje, E.B. (2000). The role of text in classroom learning. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D.
Pearson & R.
this narrative study, questions are addressed about the use of
printed texts in classrooms.
The different forms of texts are identified and discussed.
The transmission model was identified and further
explained, stating that teachers use texts to transmit a
large body of knowledge to students. The participatory approach,
which began in the late 1980s, offers a model where students use
the text as a tool for learning and invites students to
participate in the construction of knowledge. Literature
discussions and writers workshop are part of this model.
conclude by stating it is necessary to clearly understand what
studies under review considered as a text.
Some studies dealt only with printed texts while others
were more inclusive. In
addition, it was believed that multiple approaches are needed when
working with texts and different pedagogy should be used when
presenting texts in various forms.
must be trained in appropriate pedagogy for using textbooks with
Statement of ProblemExemplary Practices
Discussion of Findings
Favorite Student Literature